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What are the surface treatment processes for PCBA circuit boards? How to choose the appropriate treatment to improve its corrosion resistance and aesthetics?

Publish Time: 2024-03-27
The surface treatment processes of PCBA Circuit Board mainly include the following:

Spray tin plating (HASL): Hot Air Solder Leveling, hot gas soldering. By spraying a layer of tin on the entire circuit board surface and then blowing it through hot air, the tin melts and comes into contact with the pads to form solder joints. This processing method is simple and low-cost, but it is not suitable for high-density circuit boards.

Electroplated gold (ENIG): Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold, electroless nickel gold. First, a layer of nickel is plated on the surface of the circuit board, and then a layer of gold is plated, which improves the anti-corrosion performance of the circuit board and also provides good welding performance.

Silver plating (Ag): Silver, a layer of silver is plated on the surface of the circuit board through spraying, which improves the conductivity and welding performance, but the cost is relatively high.

Sprayed copper (Cu): Copper, a layer of copper is plated on the surface of the circuit board through spraying, which improves the conductivity and corrosion resistance.

Nickel plating (Ni): Nickel, a layer of nickel is plated on the surface of the circuit board by spraying to improve corrosion resistance and hardness.

Spray OSP (Organic Solderability Preservatives): Organic solderability protective layer, which forms an organic protective film on the surface of the circuit board to protect the pad from oxidation and improve the welding performance.

Sprayed metal alloy: For example, sprayed tin-lead alloy (SnPb) improves welding performance and corrosion resistance by spraying a layer of tin-lead alloy on the surface of the circuit board.

Selecting the appropriate treatment method to improve the corrosion resistance and aesthetics of PCBA circuit boards requires considering the following factors:

Application environment: According to the working environment of the circuit board, choose a surface treatment method with better corrosion resistance. For example, if the circuit board needs to work in a humid or corrosive gas environment, you need to choose a treatment method with better corrosion resistance.

Welding requirements: Different welding methods have different requirements for circuit board surface treatment. For example, some welding methods have high requirements on the flatness and smoothness of the metal surface, and a suitable surface treatment method needs to be selected.

Cost consideration: Different surface treatment methods have different costs, which need to be weighed and selected based on factors such as production cost and product positioning.

Reliability: The surface treatment method should ensure the reliability of welding and avoid problems such as desoldering and breakage of welding points.

Aesthetics: Some surface treatment methods may affect the appearance of the circuit board, and the appropriate treatment method needs to be selected according to the aesthetic requirements of the product.

To sum up, choosing a suitable PCBA circuit board surface treatment method requires comprehensive consideration of factors such as application environment, welding requirements, cost considerations, reliability and aesthetics to improve its corrosion resistance and aesthetics.
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